Explainable artificial intelligence: What were you thinking?

Decisions that affect our lives in both trivial and important ways are increasingly being made by algorithms. These algorithms, especially those derived using artificial intelligence (AI), are often inscrutable — at least, they are for now. If we want to hold people and organisations to account for their decisions, and if they want people to have trust in their decisions, we will need to be able to explain why a decision was made. How will we achieve explainable decision making?